April 21

Author:

      Samuel (1 Samuel 10:25 says he wrote a book…his death is recorded in chapter 25) and others.  See 1 Samuel introduction.

 

Time written:

930 B.C. and later

 

The Biblical Timeline Book by Book:

 

Genesis…history from Creation through entry into Egypt

Exodus…history from Exodus through Sinai

Leviticus…one year after the Exodus…Laws for living & instructions for the use of the Tabernacle…given during the month & 20 days between the setting up of the Tabernacle (Exodus 40:17) and the departure of the people from Sinai (Numbers 10:11).

Numbers…history, starting one month after the close of the book of Exodus and continuing through 39 years of wandering in the wilderness… concluding at the border to the Promised Land (Canaan)

Deuteronomy…the addresses given by Moses during the final months of his life while Israel was camped across from the Promised Land

Joshua…This book begins a new section of the Old Testament…the Historical books.  It describes the conquest of the land of Canaan around 1400 B.C.

Judges…The events of Judges take place between 1380 & 1050 B.C.  The period of history ends with the last Judge, Samson.

Ruth…The events of this book occurred during the time period of the Judges (the latter half of the twelfth century B.C.)  This was a time marked by idolatry and unfaithfulness.

1 Samuel…begins with the life of Samuel (the last of the Judges) and ends with the death of Israel’s first King, Saul…a time frame of about 115 years.

2 Samuel…records the history of King David’s reign.

 

General information:

 

In the Hebrew Bible, 1 & 2 Samuel form a single book (as do 1 & 2 Kings, and 1 & 2 Chronicles).

 

Doctrinal Theme(s):

 

The covenant with God-Davidic Covenant (2 Samuel 7:4-14)…

  1. David will have a child, yet to be born, who will succeed him and establish his kingdom.
  2. This son (Solomon) will build the Temple instead of David.
  3. David’s house & throne of his kingdom will be established forever (cf. Luke 1:28-33,68-75; Acts 15:13-18).
  4. Solomon will not lose the throne even though his sins justify chastisement (Psalm 89:33-37).

 

The consequences of sin (2 Samuel 11-12

 

David was a man after God’s own heart (1 Samuel 13:14; Acts 13:22) not because of boasted perfection but because of confessed imperfections.

What the Bible is All About, Henrietta C. Mears, p. 122

 

The character of David: faithfulness, modesty, patience, courage, big-heartedness, trustfulness, penitence

 

https://visualunit.files.wordpress.com/2010/03/kings_time1.png

 

2 Samuel 1-3

 

The Crowning of David over Judah (he ruled for 40 years) 2 Samuel 1-4

 

2 Samuel 1:1-16-David receives word from an escaped Amalekite that Saul and Jonathan are dead.  The man takes credit for killing Saul.  His story is different from that found in 1 Samuel 31:3-6.  Obviously, he has made it up and is attempting to get recognition (and perhaps some kind of reward) from David.  However, he does not realize David’s commitment to Saul as God’s anointed.  David has the man killed.

2 Samuel 1:17-27-David sings a song of lament for Saul and Jonathan.  The Book of Jashar (:18) contains a history of Israel’s wars (cf. Joshua 10:13).  We do not have a copy of this book.

2 Samuel 2-4-Chapters 2-4 record the rivalry between David and Saul’s only remaining son, Ish-bosheth.  David became the king in Judah and Ish-bosheth became the king in Israel.

2 Samuel 2:1-7-David had been living with the Philistines because of his fear of Saul (1 Samuel 27ff).  Now that Saul is dead, he asks God if he should move back to Judah and God tells him to do so.  David moves to Hebron and the men of Judah anoint him as king of Judah (he was king for 7½  years, :11).  When he found out that the men of Jabesh-gilead had buried Saul...David blessed them.  He also invited them to be a part of his kingdom.  This was a shrewd tactical move on David’s part because Jabesh-gilead was to the north of the capital of Israel, where Ish-bosheth was king.

2 Samuel 2:8-11-Abner, who was the commander of Saul's army, took Saul's son Ish-bosheth (his name means “man of shame”, he was 40 years old), and anointed him king of Israel (he was king for 2 years, he was crowned king over the northern tribes, Israel, and Transjordan).

2 Samuel 2:12-32-Joab, who was the commander of David's army, met Abner and Israel's army at the pool of Gibeon.  Each army sent 12 representatives to fight.  In this way there didn’t need to be any excessive bloodshed.  However, all 24 were killed...so the two armies ended up fighting and David's won.  When Abner's army fled, Joab's brother (Asahel) caught up with him.  Abner tried to talk him out of fighting with him but he would not listen.  So, Abner killed him.  Abner called out to Joab to stop pursuing them and they did.  By the end of the battle…20 of David’s men were missing, but 360 of Ish-bosheth’s men were dead.

2 Samuel 3:1-War continued between David and Saul's army...but David was growing strong, while Ish-bosheth’s army was growing weaker.

2 Samuel 3:2-5-6 sons were born to David while he lived at Hebron.

2 Samuel 3:6-11-Abner was growing strong in Saul's army.  Abner had sex with Saul's concubine (Rizpah...a suggestive threat that he intended to take over Saul's kingdom)...and Ish-bosheth questioned him about it.  Saul became angry and told him that if he questioned his actions he would turn the house of Saul over to David.  Ish-bosheth was afraid of him.

2 Samuel 3:12-21-Abner sent word to David that he would deliver Israel to him.  David agreed...but said that first he had to send Michal (the daughter of Saul that he had given to David...and then given to another man) to him.  Abner agreed.  David sent word to Ish-bosheth to send Milcah to him...and he did so.

2 Samuel 3:22-39-Joab returned from a raid and found out that David had made peace with Abner and that he had already left.  Joab sent word for Abner to return...without telling David.  He took Abner out to talk with him and killed him.  This was in revenge for Abner killing his brother, Asahel.  When David found out he told Joab that the consequences for the death of Abner was on him.  David refused to eat...out of respect for Abner...and it pleased the people.

 

Prayer: Lord, despite Saul’s attempts to kill David and the evidence that he was not following Your will…David still respected Saul because he was Your anointed ruler.  Please help me to show respect to other men, as he did.  David’s actions were an amazing statement of his trust in Your sovereignty.  In Your time, by Your methods…You would fulfill Your promises to David.  I know at times he was tempted to do something on his own…but he waited on You.  Please give me that same patience and trust in You…when I don’t see things happening as I think that they should, or when I don’t see people acting as I think they should.

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